A basic subject was executed on Program of fundamental researches of OOB RAS of «Problem of general biology and
ecology, rational use of biological resources», the Russian fund of fundamental researches, «Problems of change of
natural environment and climate», GNTP «Russian forest», «Biological diversity», «Astronomy. Fundamental space
researches», «State support of integration of higher education and fundamental science».
Estimation of biosphere role of forests of Russia
Conception on determination of macrostreams of carbon in forests of Russian Federation is grounded. Principles
of calculations of supplies of carbon in phytomass and soils, on the materials of the State Forests Account, the experimental information on phytomass, productivity, and "annual
falling away" during natural thinning out of planting), are fixed in its basis. The method allows to estimate the values of the sequestrum CO2 - C by the forests of Russia for
description of the biosphere role of the boreal forests. Knowledge of carbon budget in forests of Russia and methods of its regulation is necessary for the implementation of
international obligations of Russia, under limitation of the discharge of a hotbed gases, and forming of market of rights to the carbon credit.
The methods of estimation of pools of carbon in the forests and of sizes of its annual depositing by forest vegetation, of scales of emissions of carbon from the forest fires, are developed. Estimations of carbon potential of the boreal forests of Russia, taking into account realisation of large scale projects on the forest renewal and forest cultivation, are got. The method of long-term prognostications of dynamics of supplies of carbon in the forests and amounts of its depositing by the forest vegetation at different strategies of forest management, is offered.
Research of biological diversity, productivity and stability of forest ecosystems
It is set that by the main factor of reduction of boidiversity of forests, there is violation of the naturally-conditioned different-scaled mosaic of the forest cover. Measures on renewal of boidiversity of forest ecosystem: forming of the different-age mosaic of windows of renewal by conducting of group-selective fellings and care fellings, creation of the mixed forest cultures, renewal of populations of the rare types of plants, are offered. The population criteria of choice of especially guarded natural territories and recommendation on renewal of vegetation for the forest vegetable areas, are developed. The books of «Estimation and saving of boidiversity of forest cover in the preserves of European Russia»,2000, «Successional processes in the preserves of Russia and problems of saving of the biological diversity»,1999, are published. Methodology of systems analysis of natural habitats of types of plants and associations of the boreal forests, allowing to expose the factors of their spatial distribution on macrogeographical, landscape, and local levels, is developed. The method of construction of maps of natural habitats, and the attended analysis of climatic and landscape descriptions, with the use of GIS-technologies, is offered.
For determination of the technogenic loading on the forest territories, there is developed a mathematical model of «dose-effect of dependence», which forecasts the state of forest ecosystems at a different degree of industrial influences. The model is adapted for the regions of the Kol'sky peninsula and of South Ural.
Monitoring of forests with the use of aerospace methods and GIS-technologies.
monitoring of forests, the methodology and method of analysis and processing of
data, got from the space vehicles of type «Resource-01», is developed. The
composition of measured on space pictures indexes, characterising the ecosystem
diversity of forests and disturbance of forests under influence of the
anthropogenic and natural factors, is based. Possibility of the use of values of
vegetation index, expected on the basis of information of space radiometer, for
stratification and estimation of productivity of lands of the forest fund of
Northeast of country, is set, and the maps of the fenological districts of
Russia are made. For informative support of acceptance of decisions, at the
Federal level of management of the system of protection of forests, the
geoinformational system of monitoring of forest fires, is developed. GYS
provides collection, storage, attended treatment, and distribution of the
spatially-co-ordinated information on burn ability of forests, terms of origin,
and development, of forest fires, level of their influence on the environment,
got on basis of the ground, air, and space facilities and methods of supervision
at the forest fires and weather conditions. Developed and approved methods and
algorithms of detection, and map drawing, of the active forest fires and cinders,
with the use of data of satellites of the NOAA, and Spot Vegetation, series.
Within the framework of the geoinformational system of monitoring of forest
fires of the Federal level, it passes of installation and check-out phase of the
programmatic, providing for drawing a map of active fires. It last allows to
form of the daily fire products, including hearths of burning, gone by a fire
areas of forest fund, fullness with smoke of a territory and ordinary cover in
the regions of active fires. Testing of algorithms is executed on the space
images of forest fires, acting on territory of Far East in 1998-1999.
The long-term dynamics of areas of hearths of insects-phyllophages on the
regions is studied, the methods of adaptive prognostication of these processes
are developed. Analysis of structure and scopes of flashes of mass reproduction
of insects-phyllophages allowed to expose conformities to the law of gradation
processes, typical for a specie on the whole, and to set the features of
dynamics of population, allowing to develop different, including prognosis,
Mathematical design of dynamics of forest ecosystems
The hierarchical system of structural models of dynamics of stands in different spatial and temporal scales, is developed. The asymptotic conduct of structural model of dynamics of forest cover is explored, and the general ergodic theorems, allowing to calculate distribution of forest areas and value of the generalised variables (basic descriptions of forest biogeocenosis) in the stationary state of the ecosystem, are got. The theoretical distribution of areas, middle heights and stores, of stands of basic generic breeds in stationary state, is found. The «ergodic method» of estimation of declination of observed state of ecosystem, from its stationary state, is offered.
The regional models of natural and anthropogenic dynamics of forest cover, methods of basement of possible sizes of the forest management, answering the system of ecological and economical limitations, are developed. A method of estimation of resource potential of forests at different scales of managing and revolting influences on forest ecosystems, is offered.