CENTRE FOR PROBLEMS OF ECOLOGY AND PRODUCTIVITY OF FORESTS

RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

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Forest Science" Journal

Laboratory of Structure Functional Organisation of Forest Ecosystems

Head of the Laboratory
Smyrnova Olga Vsevolodovna, Ph.D., Professor (499 7243049)
Staff of Laboratory Collaborators:
  1. Zaugol'nova Ljudmila Borisovna - Ph.D., general researcher
  2. Chernen'kova Tat'yana Vladimirovna, Dr.b.s.,
  3. Braslavskaya Tat'yana Yourievna - Ph.D., senior researcher
  4. Tanasevych Andrey Victorovich, Ph.D., senior researcher
  5. Tykhonova Yelena Vladimirovna - researcher
  6. Shashkov Maxim Petrovich - researcher
  7. Lugovaya Dar'ya Leonidovna - junior researcher
  8. Makarova Vera Aleksandrovna - junior researcher
  9. Bakun Yelena Yourievna - junior researcher
  10. Prokazyna Tat'yana Sergeyevna - junior researcher
  11. Mavlenkova Yelena Victorovna, junior researcher
  12. Kotlov Ivan Pavlovich, junior researcher

List of publications of the laboratory researchers

Basic academic directions of activity:

Study of biovariety and stability of forest ecosystems, perfection of methods of analysis of their successional state, development of the successional charts for forests in of the taiga, of the subtaiga and of the deciduous-spruce forest areas.

The theoretical reconstruction of credible structurally-functional organisations of forest vegetation in the pre-agricultural period (an unbroken forest vegetation), the determination of set of structural signs of the unbroken forests determining their maximal intracenotical heterogeneity, high specific variety and capacity for the self-support.

Exposure of modern forest ecosystems which can be considered as small broken, research of their structurally-functional organisations, successional dynamics, capabilities to the self-support, specific, functional (a population-demographic, ecological) and cenotical variety; development of classification of the intracenotical structures of the forest ecosystems (parcels, micro-sites).

Accumulation of geobotanic information about the forest ecosystems in of the taiga, of the subtaiga and in the deciduous-spruce forest areas; creation of geobotanic databases; perfection of methods of the quantitative-statistical analysis of geobotanic descriptions.

Accumulation and generalisation of information on biology and ecology of species of the forest ecosystems, foremost of the key (key species) - forest creative arboreal species and large phytophage; determination of ecological strategies of the plants species in forest associations of the taiga, of the subtaiga and of the deciduous-spruce forest areas; creation of databases on the biology and ecology of the species; analysis of functional role of species in organisation of forest ecosystems, on the basis of the accumulated information.

Creation (with the use of GIS-technologies) of databases about the pala - and modern natural habitats of species of forest ecosystems especially of the key ones; introduction of the GIS-methods in the analysis of dynamics of these natural habitats during the agricultural time and in the reconstruction of the specific composition and structure of forest ecosystems in different periods of time, founded on the comparison of dynamics of natural habitats of different species.

Accumulation of information about the history and the modern methods of nature management in of the taiga, of the subtaiga and deciduous-spruce forest areas; analysis of the role of anthropogenic press in the change of biological variety and stability of the forest ecosystems.

Development of ideas of the ecology-cenotical groups (ECG) of the plants, the function boxes, the interaction of which determines of variety of the explored forests, of the characteristics of the forest flora species on belonging to the ECG, and analysis of forest associations of the different areas on this functional index of biovariety.

Development of methods of analysis of the overcenotical structures of forest vegetation - catenas (small river pools) and other variants of the vegetable complexes; exposure of regularities of the catena structures of forested landscapes in different areas; analysis of varying of indexes of the biovariety of forest ecosystems, depending on the structure and functional organisation of the catenas and other complexes.

Development of methods of classification of the forest associations on the basis on comparisons of the dominant and ecology-floristic classifications; creation of reference book on the forest vegetation ETR, allowing to correlate between the units of the dominant and ecology-floristic classification; perfection of the general principles of the classification; clarification of the hierarchical correlation between the different classification units, especially applied in scopes of the dominant classification.

Analysis of the general structural and cenotical variety of the forest vegetation in a different spatial scale: on local level - by the exposure and description of lower units of the ecology-floristic classification (including again selected on the original materials); on the meso - and macroregional (in the I.G. Ysachenko conception) - by the comparatively-geographical analysis of the classification units of a different grade and clarification of the correlation between hierarchical position of classifications units and spatial scale of those structures of vegetation, to which these units do correspond.

Academic projects executed with the participation of the employees of the laboratory:

  • Program of Section of General Biology of RAS 5.6. of Study of structurally-functional organisation of the forest biocenosis, in aims of increase of the productivity;
  • Program of the OOB RAS of Problems of the general biology and ecology: the rational use of biological resources 08. Problems of the forest;
  • Program of the fundamental researches of Presidium of the RAS of Scientific bases of saving of the biovariety of Russia (a project of Development of the methodological bases of the monitoring, the academician A.S. Ysaev) is a leader;
  • Federal special purpose scientific and technical subprogram of Biological variety. 84. Theory and methods of estimation, saving and renewals of the biovariety of forests of the European part of Russia (the academician A.S. Ysaev is a leader);
  • RFFY 01-04-49098 of Selection of functional groups in a grass cover of forests of the European Russia (O.V. Smyrnova, Ph.D., is a leader);
  • Scientific school of akad. A.S. Ysaev (leader of project is akad. Ysaev A.S.); The federal program of State support of integration of the higher education and fundamental science (contract 0036 Expeditionary researches and study of flora and vegetation of the OOPT Bear coniferous forest, a leader is Savynykh N.P.;
  • contract -016 Estimation of biological variety of forest vegetation in the typical landscape of sander plain in the Maryy El Republic, a leader is Zaugol'nova L.B.);
  • Eu-INTAS - 97-30225 Forest Models for Sustainable Management (FORMOD) (program leader is Chumachenko S.I., Ph.D.);
  • Eu-INTAS - 01-0633 Forest Biodiversity (leader is Chumachenko S.I., Ph.D.)

Basic academic results

The analysis of literature on features of the environmental conditions of the pleistocene and the change of composition of the generic breeds, for a space of the pleistocene-Holocene, is conducted. An inlaid-pulsating conception of the development of the forest cover in the pleistocene, is offered.

The theoretical conceptions of stability and heterogeneity of natural associations of the forest area are generalised. On the basis of the analysis of the stages of development of the forest cover of European Russia it is offered to distinguish: the potential forest cover that is a cover existed before the active anthropogenic transformations; a modern forest cover that is the variety of registered on the real moment successional variants of forest cover, reflected in one or another typological or classification systems; a recovered forest cover that is the quasi-stable state of forest cover, which was formed or can be formed on the territories with minimum direct anthropogenic influence, or with the complete exception of the direct anthropogenic influence (in different OOPT variants); an optimum forest cover as anthropogenically managed for the aims of saving of the maximal possible biovariety, and high productivity, forest cover.

The general principles and methodology of the practical estimation of the biovariety of forests of North Eurasia are grounded.

The choice of the parameters and indicators of the biovariety, taking into account their meaningfulness in passing of the generic process, and the modern conceptions about the structure and dynamics of the forest cover, is carried out.

The substantiation of procedures of monitoring of the biovariety of the forest cover, including the use of the information of the remote sensing, is given. In the basis of conceptual approach to the monitoring of biovariety of forests, is put a conception about the structural alteration of the forest ecosystems in the process of the successional dynamics.

The informative-analytic system of the FORRUS, used for the estimation of biovariety of the forest cover of the European Russia, is formed.

The informative block of the system includes the field materials about forest cover in the different parts of forest area from a north taiga to the forest-steppe (now contains about 10 000 descriptions).

The analytical block of the system includes the reference databases on biological and ecological properties of the plants species (on meanings in the ecological scales of different authors, on the ecological strategies) and on the base associations of the deciduous and the coniferous-deciduous forests (the PRODROMUS database), and also algorithms of estimation of the specific and structural variety of forests, calculation of different indexes of the biovariety.

Development of the hierarchical classification of ecology-cenotical groups for the forest belt of European Russia, is completed.

In the research is included more than 1500 types of vascular plants.

The ecological analysis (on the Ellenberg scales) of the ecology-cenotical groups, selected by the expert method, and by the methods of multidimensional statistics, is conducted.

Indicative coefficients which allow to describe the closeness of connections into the selected ecology-cenotical groups, and between the groups, are calculated.

Comparisons of lists of functional groups of species for the different territories of the middle and south taiga, are conducted.

Classification of natural micro-habitats is made, and the preliminary connection between the ecology-cenotical groups and types of the natural micro-habitats, is set.

The algorithm of estimation of the ecology-cenotical composition of the coniferous-deciduous forests by the taxation data, is prepared.

The basic factors of change of biovariety of forests as the result of economic activity, are exposed.

A method, allowing to represent the successional system of forest associations on any territory, on the basis of geobotanic descriptions, is developed. Definition of climax and quasi climax forests is given, the series of their characteristic signs and groups of indicative species is selected.

The method of analysis of composition and placing of forest cover within limits of the catena, is developed. The typology of catenas in of the subtaiga and of the deciduous-spruce forest areas, is completed.

The algorithm of stage-by-stage creation of thematic card of the biovariety of forests at the regional level, is mastered.

A chart of the regional GYS biovariety of the forest ecosystems, providing of conducting of the monitoring and estimation of the anthropogenic influence, is developed.

The assay of methods of analysis and estimation of the biovariety, put in the structure of the FORRUS base, on the example of the test forest arrays in Moscow (the Pryoksky-terracing preserve) and the Kaluzhskaya (the Kaluzhskye Zaseky preserve, the national park of Ugra) regions, is conducted.

The eco-cenotical structure of the boreal forest associations being on different stages of successions, is analysed.

Intercommunication of the structural and taxonomic variety in the boreal forests is shown, and the set of signs characterising of the quasi-climax boreal forests, is exposed.

Basic variants of the successional systems in middle taiga, formed at the different types of nature management, are offered.

Comparison of the biovariety in basic types in of the north- and of the middle taiga dark-coniferous forests of the republics of Karelia, Komi, and the Arkchangelsky, Sverdlovsky regions, is conducted. The preliminary list of the refugiums of the biological variety for territories of Komi, Permskoy region and Karelia, is made. The floristic, ecology-cenotical, and demographic analysis of basic types of the dark-coniferous forests of the South Yamal (Gorno-Khadytynskyy reserve), Kunovatskogo and Sobtyeganskogo reserves in Lower Ob, forests of the Siberian ridges (the Noyabr'sk environs), is conducted.

The surveying tables of the lower classification units of the northtaigas and middletaigas forest associations, allowing to correlate between the types of forest (by lower units of the forest typology and dominant classification) and associations of the ecology-floristic classification, are developed. The classification units of forest vegetation, represented in the tables, are described in relation of their successional state and indexes of the biovariety on materials, present in the FORRUS system and on the basis of the algorithms, put up in this base.

The analysis of biovariety on basic associations of the coniferous-deciduous forests of European Russia with an account of by a layer changes (the ecology-floristic classifications units are used), is conducted.

Classification of forest associations of the national park of Maryy Chodra (the Maryy El republic) is offered, their floristic analysis and comparison with the types of the deciduous and the coniferous-deciduous forests of the east sector of European Russia, is conducted.

The analysis of the deciduous forests of the European Russia in three subzones: the mixed forests, deciduous forests and the forest-steppe, with use of methods of the floristic classification by Brown-Blanke, is conducted.

Principles of selection of base associations and determination of the ecologically similar natural habitats, are offered.

The floristic, ecological and ecology-cenotical description of the basic associations (one new association and two subassociations are selected and described), is given, the distinctions of their composition in different regions of the forest belt of the ETR and different types of landscape, are shown. A list (a prodomus) of sintaxons of the mesophyl deciduous forests of the European Russia is developed.

The successional system is formed, and the most probabilistic dynamic tendencies on example of the pyrogenic coniferous-deciduous forests in the sander type of landscape of the deciduous forest area, are shown.

The contour modern natural habitats of woods-edificators are ciphered, and the comparison of the point natural pala-habitats, contour modern natural habitats, and climatic parameters of different stages of the Holocene and contemporaneity, is conducted.

On the basis of researches of the refugiums of taiga vegetation of the European Russia, the analysis of literature and analysis of built natural habitats of the key species of trees, the existing conceptions of origin of the taiga vegetation of Eurasia, are revised. The conclusions to confirm of V.B. Sochava conceptions of the indigenous origin of this type of vegetation, are done.

The conducted researches exposed the gradualness of transformation of the arctotertiary forests, and saving to the present time of their mixed nemoral-boreal character in the on-soil cover of the described refugiums.

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