The analysis of literature on features of the environmental
conditions of the pleistocene and the change of composition of the
generic breeds, for a space of the pleistocene-Holocene, is
conducted. An inlaid-pulsating conception of the development of the
forest cover in the pleistocene, is offered.
The theoretical conceptions of stability and heterogeneity of
natural associations of the forest area are generalised. On the
basis of the analysis of the stages of development of the forest
cover of European Russia it is offered to distinguish: the potential
forest cover that is a cover existed before the active anthropogenic
transformations; a modern forest cover that is the variety of
registered on the real moment successional variants of forest cover,
reflected in one or another typological or classification systems; a
recovered forest cover that is the quasi-stable state of forest
cover, which was formed or can be formed on the territories with
minimum direct anthropogenic influence, or with the complete
exception of the direct anthropogenic influence (in different OOPT
variants); an optimum forest cover as anthropogenically managed for
the aims of saving of the maximal possible biovariety, and high
productivity, forest cover.
The general principles and methodology of the practical estimation
of the biovariety of forests of North Eurasia are grounded.
The choice of the parameters and indicators of the biovariety,
taking into account their meaningfulness in passing of the generic
process, and the modern conceptions about the structure and dynamics
of the forest cover, is carried out.
The substantiation of procedures of monitoring of the biovariety of
the forest cover, including the use of the information of the remote
sensing, is given. In the basis of conceptual approach to the
monitoring of biovariety of forests, is put a conception about the
structural alteration of the forest ecosystems in the process of the
The informative-analytic system of the «FORRUS», used for the
estimation of biovariety of the forest cover of the European Russia,
The informative block of the system includes the field materials
about forest cover in the different parts of forest area from a
north taiga to the forest-steppe (now contains about 10 000
The analytical block of the system includes the reference databases
on biological and ecological properties of the plants species (on
meanings in the ecological scales of different authors, on the
ecological strategies) and on the base associations of the deciduous
and the coniferous-deciduous forests (the PRODROMUS database), and
also algorithms of estimation of the specific and structural variety
of forests, calculation of different indexes of the biovariety.
Development of the hierarchical classification of ecology-cenotical
groups for the forest belt of European Russia, is completed.
In the research is included more than 1500 types of vascular plants.
The ecological analysis (on the Ellenberg scales) of the
ecology-cenotical groups, selected by the expert method, and by the
methods of multidimensional statistics, is conducted.
Indicative coefficients which allow to describe the closeness of
connections into the selected ecology-cenotical groups, and between
the groups, are calculated.
Comparisons of lists of functional groups of species for the
different territories of the middle and south taiga, are conducted.
Classification of natural micro-habitats is made, and the
preliminary connection between the ecology-cenotical groups and
types of the natural micro-habitats, is set.
The algorithm of estimation of the ecology-cenotical composition of
the coniferous-deciduous forests by the taxation data, is prepared.
The basic factors of change of biovariety of forests as the result
of economic activity, are exposed.
A method, allowing to represent the successional system of forest
associations on any territory, on the basis of geobotanic
descriptions, is developed. Definition of climax and quasi climax
forests is given, the series of their characteristic signs and
groups of indicative species is selected.
The method of analysis of composition and placing of forest cover
within limits of the catena, is developed. The typology of catenas
in of the subtaiga and of the deciduous-spruce forest areas, is
The algorithm of stage-by-stage creation of thematic card of the
biovariety of forests at the regional level, is mastered.
A chart of the regional GYS biovariety of the forest ecosystems,
providing of conducting of the monitoring and estimation of the
anthropogenic influence, is developed.
The assay of methods of analysis and estimation of the biovariety,
put in the structure of the «FORRUS» base, on the example of the
test forest arrays in Moscow (the Pryoksky-terracing preserve) and
the Kaluzhskaya («the Kaluzhskye Zaseky preserve», the national park
of «Ugra») regions, is conducted.
The eco-cenotical structure of the boreal forest associations being
on different stages of successions, is analysed.
Intercommunication of the structural and taxonomic variety in the
boreal forests is shown, and the set of signs characterising of the
quasi-climax boreal forests, is exposed.
Basic variants of the successional systems in middle taiga, formed
at the different types of nature management, are offered.
Comparison of the biovariety in basic types in of the north- and of
the middle taiga dark-coniferous forests of the republics of Karelia,
Komi, and the Arkchangelsky, Sverdlovsky regions, is conducted. The
preliminary list of the refugiums of the biological variety for
territories of Komi, Permskoy region and Karelia, is made. The
floristic, ecology-cenotical, and demographic analysis of basic
types of the dark-coniferous forests of the South Yamal (Gorno-Khadytynskyy
reserve), Kunovatskogo and Sobtyeganskogo reserves in Lower Ob,
forests of the Siberian ridges (the Noyabr'sk environs), is
The surveying tables of the lower classification units of the
northtaigas and middletaigas forest associations, allowing to
correlate between the types of forest (by lower units of the forest
typology and dominant classification) and associations of the
ecology-floristic classification, are developed. The classification
units of forest vegetation, represented in the tables, are described
in relation of their successional state and indexes of the
biovariety on materials, present in the «FORRUS» system and on the
basis of the algorithms, put up in this base.
The analysis of biovariety on basic associations of the
coniferous-deciduous forests of European Russia with an account of
by a layer changes (the ecology-floristic classifications units are
used), is conducted.
Classification of forest associations of the national park of «Maryy
Chodra» (the Maryy El republic) is offered, their floristic analysis
and comparison with the types of the deciduous and the
coniferous-deciduous forests of the east sector of European Russia,
The analysis of the deciduous forests of the European Russia in
three subzones: the mixed forests, deciduous forests and the
forest-steppe, with use of methods of the floristic classification
by Brown-Blanke, is conducted.
Principles of selection of base associations and determination of
the ecologically similar natural habitats, are offered.
The floristic, ecological and ecology-cenotical description of the
basic associations (one new association and two subassociations are
selected and described), is given, the distinctions of their
composition in different regions of the forest belt of the ETR and
different types of landscape, are shown. A list (a prodomus) of
sintaxons of the mesophyl deciduous forests of the European Russia
The successional system is formed, and the most probabilistic
dynamic tendencies on example of the pyrogenic coniferous-deciduous
forests in the sander type of landscape of the deciduous forest area,
The contour modern natural habitats of woods-edificators are
ciphered, and the comparison of the point natural pala-habitats,
contour modern natural habitats, and climatic parameters of
different stages of the Holocene and contemporaneity, is conducted.
On the basis of researches of the refugiums of taiga vegetation of
the European Russia, the analysis of literature and analysis of
built natural habitats of the key species of trees, the existing
conceptions of origin of the taiga vegetation of Eurasia, are
revised. The conclusions to confirm of V.B. Sochava conceptions of
the indigenous origin of this type of vegetation, are done.
The conducted researches exposed the gradualness of transformation
of the arctotertiary forests, and saving to the present time of
their «mixed» nemoral-boreal character in the on-soil cover of the